Pituitary Hormones

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Author: Jack A. Maggiore, PhD, MT(ASCP)
Reviewers: Rory Huschka, M.Ed, MT(ASCP) and Roger Beckering, M.Ed, BA, MLT(ASCP)

This course is intended to provide the basic information necessary regarding the pituitary gland and its role in the regulation of various functions of the body, and the importance of the clinical laboratory in assessing pituitary function.

Continuing Education Credits

Objectives

  • Recall the basic anatomy and physiology of the pituitary and hypothalamus
  • Describe an example of a hormone feedback mechanism related to the pituitary
  • Relate the pituitary hormones to their respective target tissue or organ system
  • Identify which common disease states are related to pituitary hormone deficiencies
  • Outline the methods most commonly used to analyze the pituitary hormones

Course Outline

  • Pituitary Anatomy and Histology
      • The Pituitary Gland
    • Pituitary Location
      • The Location of the Pituitary
    • Gland Structure
      • Adenohypophysis
      • Neurohypophysis
    • Histological Features
      • Histologic Features of the Pituitary Gland
    • Pituitary Relationship to Hypothalamus
      • Hypothalamic Regulation of the Pituitary
    • Neuroendocrine - Neurotransmitter Effect on Hormone Secretion
      • Neuroendocrine and Neurotransmitter Effects
      • Feedback and Inhibition of Neurotransmitters
      • What are the primary regions of the pituitary gland?
  • Pituitary Function
    • Functions of the Adenohypophysis
      • Adenohypophysis Functions
    • Functions of the Neurohypophysis
      • Neurohypophysis Functions
  • Primary Roles of the Pituitary Hormones
      • The Many Roles of the Pituitary
    • Regulating Hormone Secretion
      • Regulation of Hormone Secretion
    • Regulating Growth and Development
      • Regulation of Growth and Development
    • Regulating Lactation
      • Regulation of Lactation
    • Other Roles of the Pituitary Hormones
      • Skin Pigmentation
      • Regulation of Mood and Pain
      • Which of the following are among the primary functions of the pituitary gland?
  • Endocrine Relationships with Target Tissues
      • Endocrine Relationships with Target Tissues
    • Thyroid Gland
      • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
      • Thyroid - Pituitary Feedback Mechanism
    • Liver, Bones, Muscles
      • Growth Hormone
      • Growth Hormone Feedback Mechanism
    • Adrenal Cortex
      • ACTH
    • The Gonads
      • Gonadotropins
      • Control of Menstrual Cycle
      • Diagram of Hormonal Actions During Menstrual Cycle
      • Pregnancy and Placental Support
    • Adipose Tissues
      • Pituitary Role in Adipose Tissue Hormone Production
    • Mammary Glands
      • Prolactin Control and Feedback
      • Oxytocin
    • Osmoreceptors
      • Vasopressin
      • Osmoreceptors - Description and Function
  • Disorders of the Pituitary Gland
      • Pituitary Gland Disorders
    • Hyperproduction of Pituitary Hormones
      • Conditions Associated with Pituitary Hyperproduction
    • Hypoproduction of Pituitary Hormones
      • Conditions Associated with Pituitary Hypoproduction
      • An example of a pituitary hormone being underproduced that has a direct effect on another endocrine system is:
    • Benign Neoplastic Conditions
      • Benign Hyperplasia of the Pituitary
    • Malignant Conditions of the Pituitary
      • Pituitary Malignancies
  • Laboratory Analysis of Pituitary Hormones
      • The Laboratory's Role in Assessing Pituitary Function
    • The Gonadotropins
      • Measuring the Gonadotropins
    • Growth Hormone
      • Analysis of Growth Hormone
    • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
      • Analysis of TSH
    • Prolactin
      • Laboratory Analysis of Prolactin
    • Adrenocorticotropin Hormone
      • Laboratory Analysis of ACTH
    • Anti-Diuretic Hormone
      • Laboratory Assessment of ADH
      • Physicians rely upon the accurate, sensitive, and timely analysis of pituitary hormones to assist in diagnosing and treating endocrine disorders, wher...
  • Clinical Case Studies
      • Clinical Case Study #1
      • Clinical Case Study #2
      • Clinical Case Study #2 continued
  • References
      • References

Additional Information

Level of instruction:  Basic to Intermediate
Intended Audience: Medical laboratory scientists, medical technologists, and technicians. This course is also appropriate for medical laboratory science students and pathology residents. 
Course description: This course is intended to provide the basic information necessary regarding the pituitary gland and its role in the regulation of various functions of the body, and the importance of the clinical laboratory in assessing pituitary function.
Author Information: Jack A. Maggiore, PhD, MT(ASCP) serves as Associate Laboratory Director of the Core Laboratory Operations and Point of Care Testing, and Assistant Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center in Maywood, Illinois. Dr. Maggiore is a medical technologist, certified by the ASCP, with a Master of Science in Clinical Chemistry and Doctorate in Pathology from the University of Illinois. His expertise includes clinical instrumentation, method development and validation, quality assurance, medical device clinical trials, and scientific regulatory affairs. His clinical research interests include development of novel biomarkers for chronic diseases using blood spots and other non-conventional samples. Dr. Maggiore holds several medical device patents and has authored more than fifty peer-reviewed publications and textbook chapters.
Reviewer information: Rory Huschka, M. Ed., MT(ASCP), has several years of experience as a medical technologist, supervisor, and educator and is currently a Program Director at MediaLab, Inc. Rory holds a BS degree in Medical Technology from North Dakota State University and a Masters in Educational Leadership.  
Reviewer Information: Roger Beckering, M.Ed., BA (Chemistry), MLT(ASCP) has been an educator of medical laboratory sciences for over 20 years. He started as an instructor at the Minnesota Institute of Medicine (MIM), later known as Argosy University.  At Argosy, Roger held positions as Professor, Clinical Coordinator, and Program Director.   In 2016 Roger moved to the Pheonix area where he works as a Professor and Administrator for MLT and MLS programs at Brookline College.  

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