Mushroom Poisoning and the Laboratory's Role in Monitoring Patients

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Authors: Garland E. Pendergraph, PhD, JD, MLS(ASCP)SM, HCLD/CC(ABB) and Kwi Simmons, BS, MS, MLS(ASCP)
Reviewer: Amy Dellapenna, MS, M(ASCP)CM BA, MLT(ASCP)CM

This course introduces the reader to the basics of mushroom poisoning and the laboratory's role in monitoring patients suspected of mushroom poisoning. The reader will be able to identify the seven major mushroom poisons and list the major symptoms associated with each poison. Summarize the treatments suggested for each of the discussed toxins and recognize the two phyla of fungi that contain mushroom species confirmed as poisonous.

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Continuing Education Credits

  • P.A.C.E.® Contact Hours: 1 hour(s)
  • Florida Board of Clinical Laboratory Science CE - General (Clinical Chemistry/UA/Toxicology): 1 hour(s)

Objectives

  • Recall the average number of adverse mushroom exposures per year in the United States.
  • Recognize the two phyla of fungi that contain mushroom species confirmed as poisonous.
  • Identify the seven major mushroom poisons and list the major symptoms associated with each.
  • Summarize the treatments suggested for each of the discussed toxins.
  • Give examples of laboratory tests used to monitor patients exposed to mushroom poisoning.

Course Outline

  • Prologue
      • Prologue
      • Prologue, continued
  • Overview
      • The Consequences of Misidentification of Mushroom Species
      • The Systematic Classification of Fungi
      • Historical Utilization of Mushrooms
      • Mushrooms have been utilized as a food source and for medicinal purposes since:
      • The majority of mushrooms that contribute to human and animal poisoning are within the phylum:
  • Toxins
      • Classification of Mushroom Toxins
      • Group 1—Amanitin (Amatoxins)
      • Group 1-A—Orellanine (Delayed Kidney Damage)
      • Group 2—Muscimol/Ibotenic Acid (Isoxazole Derivatives)
      • Group 3—Monomethylhydrazine (Gyromitrin)
      • Group 4--Muscarin
      • Group 5--Coprine
      • Group 6—Psilocybin (Psilocin and Other Indole Derivatives)
      • Group 7—Unknown Toxins and Gastrointestinal Irritants
      • Miscellaneous Syndromes
      • Miscellaneous Syndromes, Continued
      • How many mushroom species in the phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota have been confirmed as poisonous?
  • Treatment
      • Treatment Initiation
      • Treatment - Presenting Examples of the Mushroom for Identification
      • Treatment - Group 1—Amanitin (Amatoxins)
      • Treatment - Group 1-A—Orellanine (Delayed Kidney Damage)
      • Treatment - Group 2—Muscimol/Ibotenic Acid (Isoxazole Derivatives)
      • Treatment - Group 3—Monomethylhydrazine (Gyromitrin)
      • Treatment - Group 4—Muscarine
      • Treatment - Group 5—Coprine
      • Treatment - Group 6—Psilocybin (Psilocin and Other Indole Derivatives)
      • Treatment - Group 7—Toxins Unknown and Gastrointestinal Irritants and Miscellaneous Syndromes
  • Laboratory Involvement in Diagnosis and Treatment of Mushroom Poisoning and Other Important Information
      • Laboratory Support
      • Laboratory Support, Continued
      • Pets and Mushroom Poisoning
      • Medical Mushroom Supplements
      • Prevention of Mushroom Poisoning
  • References
      • References

Additional Information

Level of Instruction:  Basic
 
Intended Audience: Medical laboratory scientists, medical technologists, and technicians. This course is also appropriate for medical laboratory science students and pathology residents.
 
Course Description: This course introduces the reader to the basics of mushroom poisoning and the laboratory's role in monitoring patients suspected of mushroom poisoning. The reader will be able to identify the seven major mushroom poisons and list the major symptoms associated with each poison. Summarize the treatments suggested for each of the discussed toxins and recognize the two phyla of fungi that contain mushroom species confirmed as poisonous.

Author Information: Garland E. Pendergraph, PhD, JD, MLS(ASCP)SM, HCLD/CC(ABB) received his MSPH from the University of Kentucky, his PhD in medical parasitology/entomology and mycology from the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, and his law degree with a concentration in health care law from Concord Law School, Purdue University. He also did a Fellowship in Tropical Medicine at Louisiana State University School of Medicine. He is the author of a textbook in phlebotomy, a number of scientific articles, plus internet training programs. He is licensed as a laboratory director in the State of Georgia.

Author Information: Kwi Simmons, BS, MS, MLS(ASCP) received her baccalaureate degree in clinical laboratory science from Thomas University and her master’s degree in clinical molecular genetics from Northern Michigan University. She is the author of an internet program on prion diseases.

Reviewer Information: Amy Dellapenna MS, M(ASCP)CM BA, MLT(ASCP)CM received her Masters of Science in Biomedical Anthropology from Binghamton University in 2018, her Bachelor of Arts in History from Binghamton University in 2002. She is an ASCP M Microbiologist with over 10 years of microbiology experience in New York State, and experience in Baltimore Maryland. She is the Clinical Manger of the South Georgia Medical Center Microbiology department and is highly experienced in Molecular assay processes, especially validations, as well as ASM bacteriology.

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